Methodological structure of an article
The title, the abstract and the key words should be written in
the Slovene and English language. A concise but informative title should convey
the nature, content and research design of the paper. It must not exceed 120 characters.
Up to six key words separated by a semicolon and not included in the title, define
the article content and reflect the article’s core topic or message. Articles must
be accompanied by an abstract of no more than 150-250 words written in the third
person. Abstracts accompanying articles must be structured and should not include
A structured abstract is an abstract with distinct, labelled sections
for rapid comprehension. It is structured under the following headings:
Introduction: This section states the main question to be answered,
and indicates the exact objective of the paper and the major variables of the study.
Methods: This section provides an overview of the research or experimental
design, the research instrument, the reliability of the instrument, methods of data
collection, and analysis indicating where, how and when the data were collected.
Results: This section briefly summarizes and discusses the major
findings. The information indicated in this section should be directly connected
to the research question. In quantitative studies it is necessary to state the statistical
validity and statistical significance of the results.
Discussion and conclusion: This section states the conclusions
and discusses the research findings drawn from the results obtained. Presented in
this section are also limitations of the study and the implications of the results
for practice and relevant further research. Both, the positive and the negative
research findings should be adequately presented.
Structure of an Original Scientific Article (1.01)
An original scientific article is only the first-time publication of original research
results in a way that allows the research to be repeated, and the findings checked.
The research should be based on the primary sources which are not older than five
years at the time of the publication of the article.
Introduction: In the introductory part the research problem is
defined within the context of knowledge and evidence it was developed. The literature
review on the topic provides a rationale behind the work and identifies a problem
highlighted by the gap in the literature. It frames a purpose for a study, research
questions or hypotheses as well as the method of investigation (a research design,
sample size and characteristics of the proposed sample, data collection and data
analysis procedures). The research should be based on the primary sources of the
recent national and international research which are not older than ten or five
years respectively, if the topic of has been widely researched. Citation of sources
and references to previous research findings is obligatory. Finally, the research
intentions and purposes are stated. Recommended is also the framing of research
questions (qualitative research) and hypotheses (qualitative research) to investigate
or guide the study.
Method : This section states the chosen paradigm (qualitative,
quantitative) and outlines the research design. It usually includes sections on
research design; sample size and characteristics of the proposed sample; description
of research process; and data collection and data analysis procedures.
The description of the research instrument includes information about the
construction of the instrument, the mode of instrument development, instrument variables
and measurement properties (validity, reliability, objectivity, sensitivity). Appropriate
citations of the literature used in research development should be included. In
qualitative research, a technique of data collection should be given along with
the preliminary research questions, a possible format or structure of data collection
and process, the criteria of validity and reliability of data collection.
The description of a sample defines the population from which the sample
has been drawn, the type of the sample, the response rate of the participants, the
respondents’ demographics (gender, educational level, length of work experience,
post currently held, and the like). In qualitative research, the category of sampling
technique and the inclusion criteria are also defined and the sample size saturation
The description of the research procedure and data analysis includes ethical
approvals to conduct a research, permission to conduct a research in an institution,
description of the research process, guarantee of anonymity and voluntariness of
the research participants, period and place of data collection, method of data collection
and analysis, statistical methods, statistical analysis software and programme version,
limits of statistical significance. A qualitative research should include a detailed
description of modes of data collection and recording, number and duration of observations,
interviews and surveys, sequences, transcription of data, steps in the data analysis
and interpretation, and receptiveness of a researcher.
Results: This section presents the research results descriptively
or in numbers and figures. A table is included only if it presents new information.
Each finding is presented only once so as to avoid repetition and duplication of
the content. Explanation of the results is focused on statistically significant
or unexpected findings. The results are presented according to the level of statistical
complexity. All abbreviations used in figures and tables should be provided with
explanatory captions. The results are presented according to the variables, answering
all the research questions or hypotheses. In qualitative research, the development
of codes and categories should also be presented, including one or two representative
statements of participants. A schematic presentation of the codes and ensuing categories
Discussion: The discussion section analyses the data descriptively
(numerical data should be avoided) in relation to specific variables from the study.
The results are analysed and evaluated in relation to the original research questions
or hypotheses. The discussion part integrates and explains the results obtained
and relates them with those of previous studies in order to determine their significance
and applicative value. Ethical interpretation and communication of research results
is essential to ensure the validity, comparability and accessibility of new knowledge.
The validity of generalisations from results is often questioned due to the limitations
of qualitative research (sample representativeness, research instrument, research
proceedings). The principles of reliability and comparability should be observed.
The discussion includes comments on the expected and unexpected findings and the
areas requiring further or in-depth research as indicated by the study results.
The limitations of the research should be clearly stated.
Conclusion: Summarised in this section are the author’s principal
points and transfer of new findings into practice. The section may conclude with
specific further research proposals grounded on the substantive content, conclusions
and contributions of the study, albeit limitations cited.
The article concludes with the following statements:
- whether the article publishes results of a larger study;
- whether the article was based on the diploma work, master’s thesis or doctorate
dissertation; in this case the student is always listed as the first author;
- whether the research was financially supported; in this case the sponsors and
other participating researchers must be included at the end of the text;
- personal acknowledgements.
The article concludes with a list of all the published works cited or referred to
in the text of the paper.
Structure of a Review Article (1.02)
Included in the category of review scientific research are: literature review, concept
analyses, discussion based articles (also referred to as a review article). The
Slovenian Nursing Review publishes review scientific research, the data collection
of which has been concluded maximum three years before the publication of an article.
A review article is an overview of the latest works in a specific subject area,
the works of an individual researcher or a group of researchers with the purpose
of summarising, analysing, evaluating or synthesising the information that has already
been published. Research findings are not only described but explained, interpreted,
analysed, critically evaluated and presented in a scientific research manner. A
review article brings either qualitative data processing of the previous research
findings (meta-analyses) or qualitative syntheses of the previous research findings
(meta-syntheses) and thus provides new knowledge and concepts for further research.
The organizational pattern of a review article is similar to that of the original
The introduction section defines the scientific, conceptual or
theoretical basis for the literature review. It also states the necessity for the
review along with the aims, objectives and the research question.
The method section accurately defines the research methods by which
the literature search was conducted. It is further subdivided into: review methods,
the results of the review, the quality assessment of the review and the description
of data processing.
Review methods include the development, testing and search strategy,
predetermined criteria for the inclusion in the review, the researched data bases,
limited time period of published literature, types of publications according to
hierarchy of evidence, key words and language.
The results of the review include the number
of hits, the number of reviewed research works, the number of included and excluded
The quality assessment of the review and the description of data processing
include the assessment of the research approach and the data obtained as well as
the quality of included research works, the final criteria to include or exclude
the sources of evidence consulted and the data processing method.
The results are presented in the form of a diagram of all the research
stages of the review. The international standards for the presentation of the literature
review results may be used for this purpose (e.g. PRISMA for systematic review.
The results should include a quality analysis of the sources included from the view
point of the research methods used. It should be evident which studies are included
in the review according to hierarchy of evidence. The results are presented verbally
and visually, the main findings concerning the research design should also be included.
In qualitative synthesis the codes and categories are used as a result of the qualitative
synthesis review. In quantitative analysis, the statistical methods of data processing
of the used scientific works are described.
The first section of the discussion answers the research question
which is followed by the author’s observations on literature review findings, the
quality of the research works included. The author evaluates the review findings
in relation to the results from other comparable studies. The discussion chapter
identifies new perspectives and contributions of the literature review, their theoretical,
scientific and practical applicability. It also defines research limitations and
points the way forward for applicability of the review findings and further research.
The conclusion section emphasises the contribution of the literature
review conducted, it sheds light on any gaps in previous research, it identifies
the significance of further research, the translation of new knowledge and recommendations
into practice/research/education/management by taking into consideration the research
limitations. It also pinpoints theoretical concept which may guide or direct further
Structure of a Professional Article (1.04)
A professional article is a presentation of what is already known, with the emphasis
on the applicability of original research results and the dissemination of knowledge.
The organisational structure of a professional article is similar to that of an
original scientific article, in the case of literature review it follows the structure
of review article. It presents the research results which upgrade the current knowledge
on the topic. No new knowledge or scientific evidence is presented, it is, however,
focused on the applicability of the results with the aim to improve the existing